mapa 1. vojenské mapování Coins would mysteriously appear underneath ancient spruce trees. The old fortress and nearby Kokořín were connected by an underground tunnel. The mystery has never been wholly explained. Let us leave these often-repeated stories aside and take a look at historical as well as contemporary maps.

The historical appearance of the landscape can still be found in written sources and maps in the archives. A map, a scaled-down image of the country, shows the mosaic of the landscape several centuries ago. When reading an old map, we can recognise settlements, water courses and bodies of water, networks of paths, forest cover, meadows, and cultivated land as well as crosses by the sides of roads, water mills and plenty of other information.

The oldest printed map in Bohemia is the Klaudián map, dating from 1518. As it was used as an aid for pilgrims travelling to Rome, it faces south for practical reasons. The Müller maps mapa 2. vojenské mapováníof Bohemia and Moravia from 1720 and 1716, respectively, represent another collection of maps covering the territory of Bohemia and Moravia. The maps fulfilled the state's (i.e. the Austrian monarchy's) military, administrative and economic requirements.

The first military survey and mapping was based on the Müller map magnified to 1:28,800 scale. Military topography officers would ride their horses around and carry out an “á la vue” survey (it sounds less lofty in plain English: guesswork mapping, i.e. merely observing the terrain).

The second military mapping was preceded by a triangulation which served as the geodetic basis of this work, which had an increased level of cartographical precision as compared to its predecessor. This project was based on the maps of the Stable Land Register in 1:2,880, which also contributed to the precision of the maps.

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